Researchers from UC San Francisco discovered that regulatory T cells a type of immune cell in mice with controlling inflammation. Directly cause stem cells in the skin to promote healthy hair growth. Without these immune cells as partners to the stem cells cannot regenerate hair follicles, leading to baldness.
Study says defects in T cells known as Tregs responsible for Alopecia areata known as spot baldness. A autoimmune disease in which hair is lost from areas of the body usually from the scalp. The body fails to recognize its own body cells and destruction of its own tissue. Normally Tregs act as peacekeepers informing the rest of the immune system of the difference between ally and opponent.
When Tregs don’t function properly, development of allergies suffer from autoimmune disorders. Which the immune system turns on the body’s own tissues. Like other immune cells, most Tregs reside in the body’s lymph nodes. Some live in other tissues seem to assist local metabolic functions as well as their normal anti-inflammatory role.
Mechanism of hair growth in Mice
First, experiments says Tregs have a close relationship with the stem cells that reside within hair follicles. Allow them to regenerate the number of active Tregs assemble around follicle stem cells. Typically swells by three-fold as follicles enter the growth phase of their regular cycle. Removing Tregs from the skin that blocked hair regrowth within three days after shaving a patch of skin.Then follicle regeneration would normally be activated. Getting rid of Tregs, once the regeneration had already begun, had no effect on hair regrowth.
Tregs’ role in causing hair growth did not appear related to their normal ability to tamp down tissue inflammation. Instead they discovered that Tregs cause stem cell activation directly through communication system known as the Notch pathway. First, the team demonstrated that Tregs in the skin have high levels of a Notch protein called Jagged 1 (Jag1). Compared to Tregs elsewhere in the body. They then showed that removing Tregs from the skin significantly reduced Notch signaling in follicle stem cells. Replacing Tregs with microscopic beads covered in Jag1 protein restored Notch signaling in the stem cells and successfully activated follicle regeneration.
New treatments for autoimmune hair loss
The genes with alopecia are almost all related to Tregs, and treatments that boost Treg function shown to be an effective treatment for the disease. The study also adds to a growing sense that immune cells play much broader roles in tissue. In skin Tregs involves in wound healing same follicle stem cells are involved in regenerating skin following injury.
Treg function to be an effective treatment for the disease. Tregs’ critical role in hair growth could lead to improved treatments for hair loss more generally.