A cerebral organoids or mini brains grown artificially in vitro, miniature organs resembling the brain. Using human mini-brains, scientists revealed a hallucinogenic compound known as dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT). The compound triggers to change in neuronal signaling pathways associated with inflammation, neural plasticity, and neurodegeneration.
However, various studies say benefits from psychedelic use. But, unable to parse out how and why these compounds produced specific positive effects.
“For the first time we could describe psychedelic-related changes in the molecular functioning of human neural tissue,” Stevens Rehen, head of research at the D’Or Institute for Research and Education, said.
Previous studies demonstrated psychedelic substances, such as LSD (Lysergic acid diethylamide), MDMA (Methylenedioxymethamphetamine) may influence anti-inflammatory and antidepressant effects. Several biological tools shown as a critical limitation for the identification of molecular pathways targeted by psychedelics in the brain.
To solve this problem, the researchers used cerebral organoids created by culturing human pluripotent stem cells in a 3D rotational bio-reactor and develop over a course of months.
The team exposed these human minibrains to single doses of 5-MeO-DMT to identify which pathways the molecule might affect. They found, the psychedelic drug changed the expression of almost 1,000 proteins. The researchers mapped out what roles these proteins played in the human brain.
Exposure to the psychedelic downregulated proteins connected to brain lesion, degeneration, and inflammation. The molecule and similar psychedelic substances may play a neuroprotective role in the human brain. Also found, 5-MeO-DMT caused an upregulated proteins critical to synaptic formation and maintenance, including proteins connected to cellular mechanisms for learning and memory. Proteins involved in inflammation, degeneration and brain lesion are downregulated.
The results suggest that classic psychedelics are powerful inducers of neuroplasticity, a tool of psychobiological transformation that we know very little about, said, Sidarta Ribeiro, co-author of the study.
More information: [Scientific Reports]