Today In History June 22
June is the 6thmonth of the year in the Gregorian calendar. In older versions of the ancient Roman calendar, June was the fourth month of the year. It became the sixth month when January and February were added to the calendar. It is the month that has the most amount of daylight hours of the year in the Northern Hemisphere and shortest amount of daylight hours in the Southern hemisphere.
According to Gregory calendar, day number 365 in a year and if it is a leap year then the day number is 366. June 22 has its special significance in India and world history. There are 30 days in June and it does not start or end on the same day of the week as any other month. Another belief is that the month’s name comes from the Latin word ‘iuniores’ which means “younger ones”.Here you will find two important events that happened today in world history on June 22.
SECOND ARMISTICE AT COMPIEGNÈ – JUNE 22, 1940
The Second Armistice at Compiègne was signed at 18:50 on 22nd June 1940 between Nazi Germany and France. Following the decision of German victory in the Battle of France (10 May–21 June 1940), it started a German occupation zone in Northern France that encompassed all English Channel and Atlantic Ocean ports and left the remainder “free” to be governed by the French. Adolf Hitler deliberately picks the Compiègne Forest as the site to sign the armistice because of its symbolic role as the site of the 1918 Armistice with Germany that signaled the end of World War I with Germany’s surrender.
By 22 June, the German Armed Forces (Wehrmacht) had lost 27,000 dead, more than 111,000 wounded and 18,000 missings, against French losses of 92,000 dead and more than 200,000 wounded. The British Expeditionary Force had lost more than 68,000 men.
Hitler decided to sign the armistice within the same rail carriage where the Germans had signed the primary armistice in 1918. In the same railway carriage during which the 1918 Armistice was signed (removed from a museum building and placed on the precise spot where it was located in 1918), Hitler sat in the same chair during which Marshal Ferdinand Foch had sat when he faced the defeated German representatives. After taking note of the reading of the preamble, Hitler during a calculated gesture of disdain to the French delegates – left the carriage, as Foch had done in 1918, leaving the negotiations to his High Command of the Armed Forces Chief, General Wilhelm Keitel.
THE BATTLE OF OKINAWA ENDS – JUNE 22, 1945
The Battle of Okinawa, codenamed Operation Iceberg, was fought on the Ryukyu Islands of Okinawa and was the biggest amphibious operation in the Pacific War of World War II. The 82-day-long battle lasted from early April until 22nd June 1945. After an extended campaign of island hopping, the Allies were approaching Japan and planned to use Okinawa, a large island only 340 mi (550 km) far away from mainland Japan, as a base for air operations on the planned invasion of Japanese mainland (coded Operation Downfall).
The battle has been mentioned as the “Typhoon of Steel” in English, and tetsu no ame (“rain of steel”) in Japanese. The nicknames refer to the ferocity of the fighting, the intensity of kamikaze attacks from the defenders of Japanese, and to the sheer numbers of Allied ships and armored vehicles that assaulted the island. The battle resulted in the highest number of casualties within the Pacific Theater during World War II.
Japan lost over 100,000 troops killed or captured, and therefore the Allies suffered quite 50,000 casualties. Simultaneously, 10,000 local civilians were killed, wounded, or committed suicide. The atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki caused Japan to surrender just weeks after the cease of the fighting at Okinawa.