The fact that historians “re-construction” the past exists demonstrates that there is a consciousness of the difference between “history” and “the past”, although this distinction is often ignored. This is particularly the case for the meta-historians – A.J. Toynbee, political scientists of the right, including Francis Fukuyama, Marxists, and Postmodernists – who apply the word “history” in a broad (invented-by-herself) phase, in which the past unfolds in a variety of stage in the current and future. This mechanism is treated as a matter of fact in their studies and they measure against it the past of historians. No, we have to make a clear difference between history as the ‘the body of information of the past created by historians’ and ‘the past’ like “something which happened, whether known or written, about historians or not”. To avoid all the misconceptions which abound in historical epistemology.
Let’s discuss a few major Historical events in Today’s History.
1813: The strange coins “holey dollar” and “dump” are circulated in NSW to combat currency shortages.
Minting the center out of Spanish dollars produced the “holly dollar” and the “dump”. The outside circle was the “holey dollar,” and the inside circle was the “dump”. Only in New South Welles and Prince Edward Island, Australia, and Canada have they ever been seen!
The issue of the money shortage in the young colony of New South Wales was met in 1813 with Lachlan Macquarie. When the British Government sent £ 10,000 in Spanish dollars to New South Wales, the initiative was taken by Macquarie to produce “holy dollars” and “dumps”. “Dumps” were not approved. The dumps had a value of 15 pence and had a crown on the face and a name on the reverse. The dumps were restored. The dollars were worth five shillings and stamped around the hole with “New South Wales 1813”. On 30th September 1813, the coins were issued. The holey dollars were the first official currency directly manufactured in Australia for circulation.
There are estimated to be around 350 Holey dollars and 1500 dumps still in circulation today. The coins were replaced by sterling coinage from 1822.
1882: The world’s first hydro-electric power plant is opened in Wisconsin, USA.
Hydroelectric power uses water-released energy to produce electricity by flowing downhill, tidal or other directions. On 30th September 1882, Fox River in Appleton, Wisconsin, USA, opened the world’s first commercial hydroelectric power station. It provided electricity to two paper mills and a lighting home. A few days later, Minneapolis was fitted with and additional hydro-electric power plant for commercial operation.
Hundred years later, in 1980, about 25% of world electricity and 5% of the overall world consumption was hydro-electric power.
1902: The synthetic fabric, rayon, is patented.
Rayon was originally referred to as “artificial silk” or “art silk”. It is a cellulation-based material. Contrary to other man-made fibers, such as Nylon, the wood pulp is not a natural raw material dependent on cellulose. It is not completely synthetic. On 30th September 1902, the patent covering the method of “cellulosic esters” was patented by Williams H Walker, Arthur D Little, and Harry S Mork of Massachusetts. A transparent sheet shape known as the “cellophane” radius can also be made.